1.1 Background to the study
Organizations are increasingly appreciating the importance of human capital. One of the main factors that best explains this shift is the rate at which globalization is taking place (Hitt, Ireland & Hoskisson, 2009, p. 289). In order to attain their profit maximization objective, firms are appreciating the contribution of the employees.
Despite the increased adoption of various technologies as one of the ways through which a firm can develop its competitive edge, management teams are increasingly getting concerned about the future of their firms (Hitt, Ireland & Hoskisson, 2009,p.65) since such a competitive advantage can be short-lived.
One of the ways through which a firm can attain a high competitive advantage is by ensuring that it has a competent human capital (Armstrong, 2006, p. 23). This means that employees are currently being considered as essential assets in the firm’s course of operation.
In order to attain this, it is paramount for firms to consider incorporating effective human resource management in their strategic management processes. According to Erasmus, Swanepoel and Schenk (2009, p.4), human resource management entails all the aspects which are related to work and employees in an organization.
Mathis and Jackson (2007, p.4) are of the opinion that human resource management entails designing various management systems with the objective of ensuring optimal utilization of human talent so as to achieve organizational goals. Despite the size of an organization, human resource managers have to ensure that effective recruitment and selection are undertaken.
The aim of the report is to analyze the most effective ways through which a firm’s human resource department can undertake recruitment process. In addition, the report also evaluates the various selection methods used by the human resource department.
The report is organized into a number of sections. The first section gives a comprehensive analysis of recruitment. The second part evaluates the selection process. Finally a conclusion and a set of recommendations are given.
2. Definition of Recruitment
Recruitment refers to the process of identifying appropriate human resource with relevant skills and qualification to fit a particular post in an organization. Alternatively, recruitment can be defined as the process of attracting potential employee to an organization (Evers, Anderson & Voskuijl, 2005, p.48).
The core purpose of recruitment and selection is to ensure that only the right person is appointed for the right job (Dale, p.1). The process is usually challenging especially in case of shortage within the labor market. Its inception and completion are marked by seeking new applicants and submission of applications within the stipulated time period.
2.1 Need for recruitment
There are a number needs which force an organization to consider recruiting. Some of them are outlined below.
Vacancies in an organization arise from various situations. Some of them include transfer, promotions, permanent disability of employees, labor turnover, termination and retirement. The resultant vacancies created require to be filled through effective recruitment (Dale, 2003, p.35).
Organizational growth is paramount if a firm is to succeed in the long term as a going concern entity. There are various strategies through which an organization can attain growth. Some of them include diversification and expansion of business operations. As a result, growth results into creation of vacancies. In addition, new vacancies may also arise as a result of new job specification.
2.2 Purpose and importance of recruitment
Recruitment is a vital process in an organization’s success. Through recruitment, an organization is able to attract a wide range of candidates to apply for various posts within the organization. In addition, a firm’s management team is able to identify potential job applicants whom it considers to be appropriate candidates.
As a result, an organization is able to develop a pool of talented candidates more efficiently. This increases the probability of the organization selecting the most appropriate employees. This is attained via minimizing the number of overqualified applicants (Dale, 2003, p.87).
Recruitment also enhances the firm’s management team in the determination of the current and future employee requirement. This is attained in the process of job analysis and personnel planning. In addition recruitment enables an organization to minimize the probability of employees selected leaving the organization within a short period.
During the hiring process, organizations are required to adhere to stipulated social and legal obligations. This is mainly so with regard to the firm’s workforce composition. Through recruitment, an organization is able to attain this. Through recruitment, there is a high probability of a firm attaining short and long term success. This arises from the fact that recruitment enhances both individual and organizational effectiveness.
2.3 Recruitment process
In order for an organization to undertake effective recruitment, a comprehensive recruitment process must be undertaken. Aswathappa (2005, p.135) stipulates that five key stages must be put into consideration in the recruitment programme. These include
Evaluation and control
According to Aswathappa (2005, p.135), planning entails translating the available job vacancies and the related information into a well defined objectives or the targets which should be attained. This is attained via specification of;
Number of applicants to be contacted
Type of applicant
During the recruitment process, organizations usually attract a large number of applicants. In most cases, the firm receives varying responses from those contacted. For example, a certain proportion will either be unqualified or uninterested. However, the firm’s management team must make an approximation of the number of qualified applicants who will fill the available posts (.Aswathappa, 2005, p.135).
On the other hand, type of contact refers to whom the information regarding the job will be targeting. Human resource managers should make this clear by defining the tasks, responsibilities and qualifications associated with the job. These details should be given via provision of a comprehensive job description.
2.3.2 Strategy development
Upon determination of the type and number of employees required, the human resource team must decide how to acquire them. Various strategies are available to the management. One of the strategies which can be adopted include make or buy. This entails making a decision on whether to invest in employee training programme or hire experienced professionals (Aswathappa, 2005, p.135).
The firm must also determine the method of recruitment to use. One of the most effective methods which should be considered includes adoption of technology. In addition, the human resource manager must also decide on the labor market which has the necessary job seekers and when to look for the skills required.
Recruitment should not commence until the human resource manager confirms that there are vacancies existing. Upon receiving applications, the human resource department must screen the applications. In the searching process, communication is important. However, caution must be taken to ensure that the firm’s virtues are not oversold. To ensure that searching is effective, the HR manager must determine the credibility of the medium used (Aswathappa, 2005, p.135).
This helps in elimination of unsuitable applicants so as to simplify the recruitment process. However, caution must be taken to ensure that suitable candidates are not rejected. During the screening process, a comprehensive criterion should be adopted. The criterion should consider the applicants knowledge, interests, skills and ability to perform the job.
2.3.5 Evaluation and control
This is important considering the fact that significant costs are incurred during the process. These include salaries for recruiters, advertisement costs, administrative overheads and cost of outsourcing among others. Via evaluation, the HR department is able to determine.
The return rate of the application
How many candidates are suitable for the job
Cost of recruitment
Retention and performance capacity of the selected candidates
2.4 Legal requirements
Employers are required by law to provide equal employment opportunities. For recruitment process to be effective, it should not include any form of discrimination (Cantano, 2009, p.68). The HR manager must ensure that there is no unfair, direct or indirect discrimination. During the recruitment process, unfair discrimination may entail omission of certain issues.
Indirect discrimination occurs by institution of conditions or rules which are aimed at favoring a small group of people. On the other hand, direct discrimination entails less favorable treatment such as bullying or harassment either on the basis of race, sexual orientation, age, disability, religion and gender.
2.5 Job analysis and job description
A comprehensive job analysis should be conducted. This should be done by collecting data relating to the job. This will aid in developing a job description which is a clarification of the work functions. The HR manager may collect data from the existing employees via questionnaires or interviews. This will aid in ensuring that the applicants understand their job (Cantano, 2009, p.69).
2.6 Recruitment sources
In order to improve the effectiveness of the recruitment process, both internal and external sources of employees should be considered.
2.6.1 External recruitment
External recruitment can enable a firm to attract a large number of applicants. Some of the external recruitment sources which the firm can use include; direct applications, use of the internet, outsourcing staffing agencies and Professional Trade Fairs, Advertising in the newspapers and magazines and campus Recruitment
2.6.2 Internal recruitment
Some of the internal recruitment sources include employee referrals, promotions and transfers. The existing employees can refer the job to their friends by telling them the benefits associated with the job. This is an effective and low cost method of recruitment. In addition, the incumbent employees know the type of employees the organization is looking for.
On the other hand, promotion entails moving an employee to a higher position. This is usually accompanied by an increment in pay. This is an effective method since it improves employee morale. On the other hand, transfer refers to moving an employee to a job with a similar status and with no pay increase. This increases the employees understanding of the organizations operation (Jackson, Schuler & Werner, 2008, p. 201).
This refers to the process of choosing the most appropriate candidate out of all the individuals recruited (Roberts, 1997, p.3). The selection process can either be conducted internally or externally.
3.1 Selection methods
There are various methods which a firm can use to select employees as discussed below.
Preliminary interview- This entails weeding out unqualified candidates. The prospective candidate is furnished with information relating the job. In addition, the HR department also elicits information regarding the candidate such as his or her skill and educational qualification. Authenticity of the applicant’s documents and certificates is also proved (Dessler, 2005).
3.2 Selection test
The firm may give the candidate psychological tests to determine the candidates performance, behavior and attitudes. Predetermined cut-off points should be used in selecting the candidate.
3.3 Employment interview
Selection cannot be complete without selection interview. The interview should be personal and the information obtained should be used to evaluate the candidate’s capabilities, strengths in relation to their credentials.
3.4 Medical examination
A physical examination should conducted by the firm’s physician or an approved medical officer. This helps in determination of the physical fitness of the candidate to do the job. It also prevents the organization from hiring people with contagious diseases. The firm is also able to limit liability which may occur as stipulated by workmen’s compensation Act (Armstrong, 2006).
3.5 Reference and background analysis
In the application form, the applicant should give addresses and names of at least 2 individuals who can testify on his behalf. These individuals should give a personal and frank opinion regarding the candidate.
3.6 Selection decision
After approval of the candidate, the human resource department should make a decision to select the candidate. The various units of the department should recommend the most appropriate candidate. The executive of the various units should give consent to the shortlisted candidates.
3.7 Job offer
The selected candidates should be offered the employment by issuing them an appointment letter. The letter should clearly specify the following amongst other terms.
Date of commencement
3.8 Employment contract
Both the employee and the employer should enter into a contract of service. Afterwards, the candidate is issued with the letter offering him the job.
4.0 What affect Selection process?
During the selection process, fairness should be incorporated. Accordingly, none should be discriminated along racial, gender, or religion lines.
4.2 Validity and reliability
Selection should also be improved via conduction of reliable and validated test to determine the most appropriate employees to perform the job. Validity tests increase the probability of success.
Selection of candidates as a result of pressure may result into selection of ineffective employees.
Effective recruitment and selection can contribute towards an organization’s success. During the recruitment process, both internal and external sources of employees should be considered. This will increase the probability of organizations attracting a wide range of candidates. In addition, a comprehensive recruitment and selection process should be followed.
To enhance the effectiveness of recruitment and selection, human resource managers should consider the following.
The process should not include any form of discrimination. This will ensure that the organization provides equal employment opportunity.
In order to reach a wide range of potential applicants, various and valid mediums of communication should be used.
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